Adenoma – a non-cancerous tumour located in a gland
Androgen – male sex hormones. The primary androgen in men is testosterone
Anorchidism – absence of one or both testes from birth
Apnoea – condition where breathing temporarily stops during sleep
Chromosomes – Packages of genes that are present inside every cell. Most people have 23 pairs of chromosomes (or 46 chromosomes), which includes one pair of sex chromosomes.
Gland – A part of the body that makes and releases hormones directly into the blood stream.
Glucocorticoids – A group of adrenal hormones that occur naturally; Medications such as hydrocortisone, cortisone acetate, prednisolone and dexamethasone
Gynaecomastia – Enlarged breasts in men
Hemochromatosis – an inherited condition where the body absorbs and stores too much iron from the gastrointestinal tract (stomach and intestines).
Hypogonadism – Reduced activity of the gonads (testes in men, ovaries in women).
Hypergonadotrophic – increased levels of hormones that stimulate the gonads (testes in men, ovaries in women).
Kallmann’s syndrome – a genetic condition resulting from a lack of sex hormone production, so that puberty is delayed or absent.
Karyotype – The number and physical appearance of the chromosomes in a cell. This test is performed to assist in determining if an individual has any changes in their chromosome structure, as these can cause problems with the body’s functions.
Klinefelter syndrome – a condition where men are born with an extra X chromosome. This means instead of having the typical XY sex chromosomes, men have an XXY sex chromosome arrangement.
Libido – interest in sex; sex drive
Opioid – a group of drugs that relieve pain and relax the body.
Prader-Willi syndrome – a genetic disorder with many symptoms including abnormal growth and body composition, obesity, muscle weakness, intellectual disability and delayed puberty due to an underlying hormone deficiency.
Prolactinoma – a non-cancerous tumour in the pituitary gland which produces high levels of the hormone prolactin
Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) – a protein made by the prostate gland.
Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) – a protein that binds to, and then carries, sex hormones through the blood.
Tumour – an abnormal swelling or growth in the body. Can be benign (harmless) or malignant (cancerous)