Location of the pineal gland

The pineal gland is located near the centre of the brain. It is a small gland (5-8mm in size) and is shaped like a pinecone (giving this gland its name).

Functions/Roles of the pineal gland

The main function of the pineal gland is to make melatonin, which sets the rhythm of many biological systems.

Hormones produced by the pineal gland

Keeping melatonin levels in balance

Melatonin levels change across the day in response to changes in daylight. More melatonin is made during periods of darkness (e.g. night), while less is produced during light periods (e.g. day). This means that melatonin levels usually change in a daily (circadian) and seasonal rhythm.

Common Problems / Disorders of the Pineal Gland

HA_Pineal_Cysts

Pineal Cysts

HA_Circadian_Rhythm_Sleep_Disorders

Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

HA_Excess_Melatonin_Supplementation

Excess Melatonin Supplementation

Page last reviewed on 3 Feb 2019